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Credits and Sources

Photo Credits:

With the exception of those listed below under Additional Photo Credits, all photos in this Messier catalog were obtained from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, NOAO/AURA/NSF. All images are used here with written permission from the NOAO.


Additional Photo Credits:

  • Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) - M1, M10, M13, M14, M15, M19, M32, M40, M49, M54, M56, M60, M62, M67, M68, M69, M84, M93, M107
  • Clipart.com - M31, M42, M45
  • John Corban & the ESA/ESO/NASA - M33
  • NASA/ESA - M43, M51
  • The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA) - M57, M80
  • NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) - M81


Book Credits:

  • Mallas, John and Everitt Kreimer. The Messier Album. 248 pp., hardcover. Sky Publishing Corporation, 1978
  • Eicher, David J. The Universe from Your Backyard. 188 pp. hardcover. Kalmbach Publishing Company, 1988.


Internet Credits:

  • The Complete Messier Catalog:  Object Descriptions and coordinates.

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