Cosmology News

Courtesy of Science Daily

Welcome to Sea and Sky's Cosmology News. Here you can find links to the latest space news headlines about cosmology and astrophysics. Click on any yellow title below to view the full news article. The news article will open in a new browser window. Simply close the browser window when you are finished reading the article to return to the news article listing. You can use the "Click for More" link to go to a page with more news headlines.


Cosmologists create largest simulation of galaxy formation, break their own record
Cosmology researchers are releasing initial findings from IllustrisTNG, their follow-up to the 2015 record-breaking Illustris simulation -- the largest-ever hydrological simulation of galaxy formation.
Publ.Date : Mon, 19 Mar 2018 12:04:59 EDT

Double or nothing: Astronomers rethink quasar environment
Astronomers have identified nearly 200 'protoclusters,' the progenitors of galaxy clusters, in the early Universe, about 12 billion years ago, about ten times more than previously known. They also found that quasars don't tend to reside in protoclusters; but if there is one quasar in a protocluster, there is likely a second nearby. This result raises doubts about the relation between protoclusters and quasars.
Publ.Date : Tue, 13 Mar 2018 09:30:54 EDT

Arrested development: Hubble finds relic galaxy close to home
Astronomers have put NASA's Hubble Space Telescope on an Indiana Jones-type quest to uncover an ancient 'relic galaxy' in our own cosmic backyard.
Publ.Date : Mon, 12 Mar 2018 14:15:28 EDT

A new kind of star
A new kind of star: Astronomers have developed a novel mathematical model that combines general relativity with the repulsive effect of quantum vacuum polarization. The inclusion of this repulsive force allows describing ultracompact configurations of stars, which were previously considered by scientists not to exist in equilibrium.
Publ.Date : Thu, 08 Mar 2018 10:52:08 EST

A peculiar galactic clash
Galaxies are not static islands of stars -- they are dynamic and ever-changing, constantly on the move through the darkness of the Universe. Sometimes, as seen in this spectacular Hubble image of Arp 256, galaxies can collide in a crash of cosmic proportions.
Publ.Date : Thu, 08 Mar 2018 10:52:00 EST

Physicists lay groundwork to better understand the birth of the universe
Scientists have developed the first techniques for describing the thermodynamics of very small systems with very high energy -- like the universe at the start of the Big Bang -- which could lead to a better understanding of the birth of the universe and other cosmological phenomena.
Publ.Date : Tue, 06 Mar 2018 14:16:02 EST

Unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map
A research team released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. The dark matter distribution is estimated by the weak gravitational lensing technique. The team found indications that the number of dark matter halos could be inconsistent with what the simplest cosmological model suggests. This could be a new clue to understanding why the expansion of the universe is accelerating.
Publ.Date : Fri, 02 Mar 2018 10:18:07 EST

Can strongly lensed type 1a supernovae resolve cosmology's biggest controversy?
Astrophysicists have discovered how to control the 'micolensing' effects of strongly lensed Type 1a Supernovae with supercomputers at NERSC. Armed with this knowledge they believe they will be able to find 1,000 strongly lensed Type Ia supernovae in realtime from LSST data -- that's 20 times more than previous expectations.
Publ.Date : Thu, 01 Mar 2018 09:48:07 EST

Search for first stars uncovers 'dark matter'
New research offers the first direct proof that dark matter exists and that it is composed of low-mass particles.
Publ.Date : Wed, 28 Feb 2018 14:44:24 EST

Unlocking the Secrets of the Universe
After 12 years of experimental effort, a team of scientists has detected the fingerprints of the earliest stars in the universe. Using radio signals, the detection provides the first evidence for the oldest ancestors in our cosmic family tree, born by a mere 180 million years after the universe began.
Publ.Date : Wed, 28 Feb 2018 13:11:15 EST

Six decades of cosmology
An expert shares his personal reminiscences of the evolution of the subject of cosmology over six decades. He tells of the increase in our confidence in the standard model of cosmology to the extent that it has become a dogma.
Publ.Date : Wed, 28 Feb 2018 13:10:37 EST

Improved Hubble yardstick gives fresh evidence for new physics in the universe
Astronomers have used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to make the most precise measurements of the expansion rate of the universe since it was first calculated nearly a century ago. Intriguingly, the results are forcing astronomers to consider that they may be seeing evidence of something unexpected at work in the universe.
Publ.Date : Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:20:05 EST

Some black holes erase your past
Physicists insist on determinism: your past and present determine your future uniquely, per Einstein's equations of general relativity. They call this strong cosmic censorship. A mathematician found some types of black holes -- charged, non-rotating objects in an expanding universe -- that allow an observer inside the black hole to travel across a horizon into a place where the past is obliterated and there are an infinite number of possible futures for every initial state.
Publ.Date : Wed, 21 Feb 2018 09:13:34 EST

Astronomers reveal secrets of most distant supernova ever detected
Astronomers have confirmed the discovery of the most distant supernova ever detected -- a huge cosmic explosion that took place 10.5 billion years ago, or three-quarters the age of the Universe itself.
Publ.Date : Tue, 20 Feb 2018 10:24:14 EST

'Ultramassive' black holes discovered in far-off galaxies
Thanks to data collected by NASA’s Chandra X-ray telescope on galaxies up to 3.5 billion light years away from Earth, an international team of astrophysicists was able to detect what is likely to be the most massive black holes ever discovered in the universe. The team’s calculations showed that these “ultramassive” black holes are growing faster than the stars in their respective galaxies.
Publ.Date : Tue, 20 Feb 2018 09:32:59 EST

Why we have yet to find extraterrestrial life
Are we alone in the universe? Few questions have captured the public imagination more than this. Yet to date we know of just one sample of life, that which exists here on Earth.
Publ.Date : Fri, 16 Feb 2018 14:27:12 EST

Astrophysicists settle cosmic debate on magnetism of planets and stars
Using one of the world's most powerful laser facilities, a team of scientists experimentally confirmed a long-held theory for cosmic magnetic field generation: the turbulent dynamo. By creating a hot turbulent plasma the size of a penny, that lasts a few billionths of a second, the researchers recorded how the turbulent motions can amplify a weak magnetic field to the strengths of those observed in our sun, distant stars, and galaxies.
Publ.Date : Fri, 09 Feb 2018 13:14:36 EST

How black holes shape the cosmos
Astrophysicists have gained new insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies. They calculated how black holes influence the distribution of dark matter, how heavy elements are produced and distributed throughout the cosmos, and where magnetic fields originate. This was possible by developing and programming a new simulation model for the universe, which created the most extensive simulations of this kind to date.
Publ.Date : Thu, 01 Feb 2018 08:58:22 EST

Overabundance of massive stars in the Tarantula Nebula
Astronomers have revealed an 'astonishing' overabundance of massive stars in a neighboring galaxy. The discovery, made in a gigantic star-forming region of the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy, has 'far-reaching' consequences for our understanding of how stars transformed the pristine Universe into the one we live in today.
Publ.Date : Wed, 31 Jan 2018 11:03:37 EST

Stellar embryos in nearby dwarf galaxy contain surprisingly complex organic molecules
The nearby dwarf galaxy known as the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is a chemically primitive place. Unlike the Milky Way, this semi-spiral collection of a few tens-of-billions of stars lacks our galaxy's rich abundance of heavy elements, like carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. With such a dearth of heavy elements, astronomers predict that the LMC should contain a comparatively paltry amount of complex carbon-based molecules. Previous observations of the LMC seem to support that view. New observations have uncovered the surprisingly clear chemical 'fingerprints' of the complex organic molecules methanol, dimethyl ether, and methyl formate. Though previous observations found hints of methanol in the LMC, the latter two are unprecedented findings and stand as the most complex molecules ever conclusively detected outside of our galaxy.
Publ.Date : Tue, 30 Jan 2018 15:22:12 EST